Opinion

The Conduct of leadership Ethics and the Development of the constitution in the State.


Isaiah T. Dokuach

The essentiality of ethics in political, economic, social and diplomatic corps, is to identify our conduct of leadership the way we manage the affairs of the state with accountability and transparency to the will of constitutional with vision of guiding, directing and defending institutions to achieve goals. Henceforth, the fundamental ideology of ethical leadership perception in political endeavor in the state and the development of the affairs, are the vital focus in this article with eyeing on constitutional power, brief explanations and concise verifications to leadership ethical perfect in both public and private institutions.

Ideologically, ethical leadership political perspective perceives dynamic rational and emotional concept of practical justice in administrative and managerial institutions for transformational models through principle processes. Thus, for more methodical insights about the scope and mandate of ethical leadership, is to highlight some philosophical and academicals understanding of how then the term ethics/ethical had been used in political and economic arena.

Thus “Ethics is the system or set of moral principles which is the branch of philosophy of values of human conduct with respect to the rightness and wrongness motives.

 The American Heritage College Dictionary understands the term, “ethics, as the study of the general nature of moral and of specific moral choice with rules of standard governing conduct of profession on matters”.

  Prof. John Stuart in his ethical leadership experience emphasis he said, ethical ideal in leadership is a principle in leadership, trust in political, economic and social fields in which leadership is a big ideal that leaders to perform political, economic and social development in good faith and honor. The mandate of ethical leadership in political, economic and diplomatic corps, a leader must have a stable heart and sound mind of ruling out matters in first hand thinking before action is done. A leader also must have an intelligence conscience attentive to the mood of emotional of his/her people’s needs in which he/she will pay them back gratification.           

 Empirically, ethical leadership in political arena or space demonstrates the system of strategy planning, policies designing, and consistent analysis on decision-makings and diplomatic mechanism coordination through constitutional supremacy in the state in which leaders are as icons or elements that identified problems and categorized their resolutions faithfully. 

The portrayal of ethical leadership ideal in political scope and mandate in national context, has fundamental variations conceptions from state to state in accordance to geographical, historical and cultural norms derived from the perspective authority of people’s constitution in which their political, economic and social life is moderately standardized through the modification of rule of laws as foundation of power from the people of the land in which, power and wealth sharing delegated from higher to lower level. South Sudan’s Transitional Constitution article {4} “South Sudan is governed on the basis of a decentralized democratic system and is an all-embracing homeland for its people. It is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-racial entity where such diversities peacefully co-exist”.      

Coordinately, the main conception focus of ethical leadership in this article is to view the fundamental principle of political justice, mandate and scope managerially through the confidentiality of guidance and direction of transitional constitution by the will of South Sudanese people in their state in daily life conduct because the power of constitution is by its people who adhered to the supremacy of law of Nature.

Some political scientists had underestimated an inadequately of political exercise in leadership perspective in which, Prof. Paul in 993, international affairs Volume 69 Number 3, warns of impending ecological disaster such as environmental and wildlife conservation laws in some states as a result of malpractice of constitution adherent. 

In South Sudan, how government policies are amended, analyzed and executed by the executive, legislative and judicial or any recognized competent institution encountered the daily environmental politics.  And how political, economic and social principles are administered unethically and the mismanagement of the state’s affairs is what mattered the writer.

In this context, according to the writer’s analysis viewpoint, the political ethical leadership in the state’s affairs, is through the supremacy of the transitional constitution the fundamental right of people’s will because, its guides the souls of people in good faith, dignity and stability in state’s environment justice.

Muhammad in his abstract philosophy of human soul’s transcendence is that, “The intelligence is not from the body, it belongs to a different order of beings and transcendent individuality”, Islam and open Society, Dakar, 2010.

Base on Muhammad’s fidelity of critical analysis, human soul is eternal and is what bring unity to physical parts of human body as an individual and as social interaction as well as community justified by religious and political institutions towards stability, accountability and transparency for the freedom of every living creatures which traced back to stage of genesis.  

Theoretically, South Sudan’s transitional constitution; the product of people’s souls with faithful thoughts and opinion that guiding and directing good governance system in the country, must be respected that to bring lasting stability to all creatures in the country. And good governance system with rule of laws in the country needs good leadership of ethical standard in all governmental institutions. In some areas of leadership cycles with concise and broad explanations, leadership is a corner stone of objectives and goals accomplishment through people in social, religious or in political institutions. This too, refers to Muhammad’s theoretical philosophy understanding of human soul as eternal. In this scope, leaders in their leadership capacities must trust their leadership role and citizens with freedom of equality and natural obligations from the Nature.

Collins in his spiritual Christian leadership experience states identified four points not to betray people of their rights with weak leadership and that to respect their personalities as a good leader;

  1. Welcome the ideas of others and acts with understanding toward even wild suggestion.
  2. Look at a situation, take hold of it and search for solution.
  3. Admit criticism when he/she is wrong and take steps to correct his/her mistake and
  4. Emphasis that every single person has a contribution to make to the common effort.

My Life alongside God’s Word Vol. 3. England, 2015.     

Eventually, such a leader can develops other leaders who later can create leadership cycle in the country through the power of national constitution.

Religiously, leadership is a call to specialize to be alone with God in self-discipline in turn to give God because ‘ethics’ in its natural perspective is God’s own heart and infinite character in daily usage. It indicates how God address men/women ethically in respect to their qualities as in Daniel 4:31 when God concluded the verdict, He used the honored tittle of a King. In this manner, a good leader is to admit criticism and acts towards others’ goals and objectives without contrary because, leadership is a sacrificed and devoted task of serving others in perfect environments of faithfulness, patient, humbleness and trust with natural emotion understanding from the Nature.

South Sudan’s political leaders in their leadership capacities should seek reference from the autonomous of law supremacy. This is to view personal legacy on good leadership from world political scientists as Leo-Strauss a Jewish who migrated to United States of America and taught in New School for science in earlier 30s and 40s. His political ethical legacy in American politics, had transformed many lives to natural and man-made leadership because of his natural political understanding of the nature. In his definitive idea of natural politics, human life is the contemplation direction to the cosmos and how man orders others living creatures on earth through sacred covenants. This is a classical doctrinal principle in nation’s political will in coordination to executive, legislative and judicial which dignified the nature of affairs of the state under the guide of national constitution. With natural rights of state’s affairs as stated by Leo-Streass in his natural political understanding, the land, people and actors are the main tripartite resultants for real environmental development in the state’s political, economic and social developments in extents as claimed by Aristotle in his classic ethical ideology that, all people oblige happiness with ultimate pleasure of power, wealth and health.

Base on this fundamental behavior of Aristotle, in the principle of democratic governance system with rule of laws under the guidance and direction of constitution, the freedom to security of food and protection, movement and rights to expression of opinion in public and through media scope is granted to every person in the state as an inherit right and gift from the Nature and people specially political elites with leadership capacity, should be familiar with law of the land in daily basis through listening, reading and understanding written articles information sources. This is to say approximately, 35% of South Sudanese are readers of written information such as books, journals, magazines and newspapers, which are not encouraging. When evaluating and investigating news imported from different written sources of information from other worlds to South Sudan, more new information went off without detected for lack of reading because 65% could not bother to read and understand. As a result, government elites of their different professionals are not acquainted with constitutional manuscripts. Transitional Constitution amended 2015article 4 {4} “All levels of government shall promote public awareness of this constitution by translating it into national languages and disseminating it as widely as possible. They shall provide for the teaching of this constitution in all public and private educational and training institutions as well as in the armed and other regular forces, by regularly transmitting and publishing programmes in respect thereof through the media and press”.

In the context of South Sudan’s political leadership, what ethical leadership can be adopted and applied transparently through law principally with abiding process as required in the national transitional constitution? 

This is to review the concise connotation of term leadership explained early in the concept of managerial and directive manner in public and private governmental and non-governmental organizations in the view of term ethical. Here, the term ethical comes from the term ethics which accumulates general nature of system of moral principle in which an ethical leader in his/her leadership capacity is to demonstrates professional leadership with rules, principles and conducts in public and private sectors in context of faithfulness and honesty in what he/she says and do. With moral of ethical conduct, Martin Luther the Reformer was eminently distinguished of his eloquence diplomatic skill of speaking before the Emperor. His ethical presentation audit before the assemble Christendom in Rome, states eloquently “Our responsibility is greater than that of our ancestors. We are accountable for the light which they received and… we are accountable also for the additional light which is now shinning…” White, Ellen, U S A, 2013.

With experience of ethical leadership in political, economic and social matters, an ethical leader must remain in his/her legacy consistently even in difficult situated environment collided with political or economic disorder. He/she is to maintain and modify law through processes with skill of self-consciousness, self-awareness and self-confident in faithful and honesty speaking with principle of transformation from weakness of law to strength of law development for common good of the public because, a leader is behold of his/her ethical conduct of performance and obedient to the environment.

British Prime Minister Attlee 945-5 was accounted of his concise statement in the parliament as qualified in his ethical leadership before the parliament populace; he spoke what he meant out of his conscience. Journal of Legislature Studies: Baldwin UK, 2004.    

 Anticipating to British’s Prime Minister 1945. Attlee of his concise speeches in the parliament before the members, contented that a leader in a political leadership when leading the  public as an representative, must have an ethical heart and moral sound mind with capability of prudent perception of analysis on political, economic and social issues that facing domestic lives  in the state.

An ethical leader is an empirical example of metaphysical vision for future detection for the betterment of state’s affairs. With leadership capacity, leaders of political space who see over the globe must talk less but should be critical thinkers and hardworking scientists over matters in concern for domestic affairs in order to maintain political, economic and social problems.

Aristotle in his account of socio- political and religious perceptions, encouraged his audience to highly value on intellect exercise or more creative by persuading the divine providence which holds both strong-weak, big- small and rich-poor in the state. As of Attlee’s ethical political leadership intelligence, a leader must have a set of rules or principles that guides his political leadership ambition in order to perceive developmental measures in the state in terms of political, economic and social transformation. Attlee in his political leadership career, he mostly highlighted on points that developed out of his/her ethical principality and leadership philosophy that reflect his/her political conduct base on national constitution. 

The ethical leadership transparency with vital conscience basically on the power of values, norms, beliefs and virtues develop to natural and man-made leader with solid hypothesis scientific political perception in which national agendas, democracy, devolution and delegation of power in government system, are constituted and distributed through series of national conventions, conferences and dialogues in the level of all political, academia and civil society parties. The nature of natural and man-made leaders in their political leadership scope and mandate, are self-control, self- confident and self- identity of how their ethical conduct of leadership is built towards others’ interests.

Leo-Strauss a born Jewish in Germany who migrated to U.S.A after the eruption of the First World War, of his ethical political leadership philosophy during 30s and 40s, he taught in US’ political science institutions in which he transformed the political leadership system of both domestic and foreign policies of the then political history to respect the law of humanity and rights of every creature with adherent to national constitution as a result of his ethical political of self-control and self-confident. An ethical leader is a self-respected person who cannot appear simply in public places and involve in endless contact and protracted contract nevertheless. Instead, he/she always thinks of how things should be perceived and transformed in trustful manner in reference to the will of law. A leader with ethical principle, cannot squabble in the public. He/she must respect the value of knowledge, understanding and wisdom the Nature has bestowed to him/her.  His/her mandate is to resemble the law of the state in his/her heart and mind and to teach his/her people of how they can respect the law of their nation in daily basis in regard to the constitutional supremacy. Ethical Leadership principle need special dedication and commitment toward goals and objectives in order to transform the society to higher civilized standard of living likewise the modern world of free political, economic and technology developments.

Hans Morgenthau a realist scholar in his diplomatic ideological experience states that, a leader without his/her cultural empirical knowledge, is like an animal in his/her political performance in the state. Hans’ ideal is agreeable because, the will of political, economic and social spheres is derived from country’s cultural element of her people like South Sudan’s 64 cultural institutions that constituted the unified supreme national constitution. Leaders in their ethical political and economic performance in the state, should adhere to the rules of laws and recognition of constitution in daily execution of duties in governmental and non-governmental institutions in regard to cultural perspective which guide their conduct. With lack of knowledge and malpractice to the rule law and justification of constitution, political, economic and social developments in the state are inconvenience both in domestic and foreign aspiration. Indigenous people are the source of political, economic and diplomatic of the state in which her significant legitimacy comes from people as texted in article 3 { 1 }This constitution derives its authority from the will of the people and shall be the supreme law of the l and. It shall have a binding force on all persons, institutions, organs and agencies of government throughout the country”.

As South Sudanese leaders, our mandate is to adhere to the rule of laws and respect to national constitution in order to propel our nation to the level of technology, political, diplomatic and economical phases. This endeavor pushing the country’s development beyond national level; it could be inculcated knowledge which derived it substantial right from our perspective cultural traditional power in which our forefathers had foreseen the then world in their worldview in their local political and economic development. With high standard of ethical leadership of administering the affairs of the state in regard to the national constitution, political leaders of obligations entrusted to them by executing or discharging government commissions, should maintain their legacies even though there exist difficulties of political, economic, economic and diplomatic hardships as well as other erupted pandemic disasters such like coronavirus, the last year flood and locusts’ bans in the country. These in more extent, could dismantle national political, economic and diplomatic mechanisms with regional and international communities but, with ethical leadership which develop its procedures from daily observation, investigation and analysis; leaders should develop art of patient, faithfulness, humbleness and meekness which are the consistent characteristics of Nature to who is just towards situation in order to break hardships cycle and to develop further transformation in the nation through the will of Transitional Constitution. 

The respectable example of consistent ethical leadership mainly on personal ambition in political ideology capacity in the power of constitution, Dr. Abdullah H. Turabi the Sudanese Islamic fundamentalist is relied of his ethical leadership perception. His ethical political leadership mandate in Sudanese political history, was to transform Sudan to the rules of law and respect to the nature. Dr. Turabi envisioned his ethical leadership philosophy of transformational process from Generals Jaafar M. Nimeri to Omar H. AL Bashir’s regimes with critical incidents to face politically, economically and diplomatically. But, with consistent courage, he had preserved his ethical leadership vision about Sudan after decades that, the Sudan’s political, economic, social and religious developments and the affairs of the state should be guided through ethical conduct base on the authoritative act of the national constitution. The Journal of North African Studies Vol. 12 Number 1, March, 2007.

The writer’s supportive argument on Late Dr. Turabi’s view, was his ethical ideology and political leadership mandate and adherent to the Sacred Religious Islamic Nature that generated his fundamental political philosophy toward the nation even though, the country was indeed Islamized politically and diplomatically with Arab world culture that conflicting non-Sudanese Muslims’ cultural characters.

With effect of rule of law and the mandate of ethical leadership in the states’ political exercise, Leadership need to be honest and transparent to their citizens as guidance, counsellors, facilitators and servants in everyday measures as it is states it below in article 36 {5} SS’ T.C, “All public offices shall be held in trust for the people and all person in positions of leadership and responsibility shall be answerable to the people in their work and duties.

With rule of law and justice methodology in the power of National Constitution, we build South Sudan democratically.

God bless the Mother Land the Republic of South Sudan.

The writer can be reached via E-mail: isaiahruon5gmail.com & 0927051667.   

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