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Metamorphosis in Lepidopteran insects is equivalent to the education system in S. Sudan, Uganda or Kenya, let’s share

Prof. Dr. Sampson A-Koi Binyason

Metamorphosis in Lepidopteran insects, Class insecta, Order, Lepidoptera refers to the change in form that, an individual insect undergoes during its development towards adulthood. Some insects may change only slightly in form, from egg-hatching to adulthood; others may undergo drastic changes that result in complete dissimilarity in form, between the young and the adult stage. Or it can simply be defined as the development changes occurring between stages, from egg hatching, larval instars, pupal and adult emergence.
There are three types of insect metamorphosis:-
i)Primitive,(or ametabolous) Metamorphosis. For example, the Silverfish, young ones come out in form of adultsand not eggs. The male does not mate with the female but, drops the spermatheca sac containing the sperms on the ground, the female collects it, and puts it inside its genital organ to fertilize the eggs and young ones are born.
ii) Gradual (or hemimetabolous) Metamorphosis. For example, the Cockroaches- male mates the female, eggs are fertilized, laid and hatch in 2-3 days after incubation to nymphs that, resemble adults and continue developing into adulthood.
iii) Complete, (or hemometabolous) Metamorphosis. For example, the Fleas – male mates the female,eggs are fertilized and laid. Egg incubation takes 2-3 or 4 days, hatch into larvae, and continue development through pupae to adults.
These three types of metamorphosis found in Class (insecta), are equivalent to the Education system in South Sudan, Uganda and Kenya. Far as 1930s, the pre-education period was previously between (7-10) years, when children started goingto school for learning. In the recent past (1970s-80s), the (7-10 yrs) period, has been divided into two; the pre-nursery period, (period without education, (3-4 yrs) and the nursery period, (basic, median & Top (2-3yrs). The variations in years for going to school were probably due tosome constrains such as lack of schools in the area, parents not interested, no motivations and lack of funds to pay for education fees.This stage of development in the education system is what we may describe as Primitive (or ametabolous)Metamorphosis in the insect development process. The period from Primary (1- 8 yrs) in the Education system represents the larval instars development stages, (1st, 2nd 3rdinstar, etc, after egg-hatching) and is equivalent to the Gradual (or hemimetabolous) Metamorphosis.The 3rdtype of insect development: Complete(or holometabolous)Metamorphosisin sequence,is linked to parts of the 4th, 5th and 6thlast larval instars of the insect development process, known as the pre-larval pupal stage and finally to full pupal stage. In the Education system this, represents the Secondary Education from senior 1 to senior 4 in South Sudan, (O) level in Uganda and Kenya and from senior 5 to senior 6 as the (A) level in Uganda and Kenya, respectively. This is the larval pre-pupal stage in the insecta. In South Sudan students who obtained good credit passesin Senior 4, may join the Universities straight, unlike successful students in Uganda or Kenya whofirstgo to (A) level for two years before joining Universities.The larval prepual stage is critical in the metamorphosis process of insects. Most larvae failed to transform and moult to pupae and therefore, die malformed. In the Education system the same critical situation occurs, most students with weak passes end up with secondary Certificates or Diplomas while others go without. The University Education which may take from 3, 4, 5, to 6 years, depending on requirements of various Colleges, represents the full transformedpupal stage. Developmental changes to adulthood continue in the full pupal stage and at the end of this process, the adults insectsjubilantly,emerge.This final stageis equivalent to the mass graduation of successful and matured students with their degrees, (BSCs/BAs) from various UniversitiesColleges.
Summarized Comparative Analysis
The development flowchart in Lepidopteran insectsgoes as follows; i)the Primitive (or ametabolous) Metamorphosis, the males mate the females and developed ovaries or eggs are fertilized normally. The zygotes or young ones are born in form of adults with no much difference infeatures, except some organs are yet to develop. Ii) The Gradual (or hemimetabolous) Metamorphosis; males and females mate and developed ovaries or eggs are fertilized and laid normally.Incubation of eggs takes between 2, 3, or4 days to hatch, depending on the species, climatic and environmental factors. What comes out of the egg is either a nymph (resembles the adult) or a larva, totally different from the adult.If this stage is preceded by the larval instars, ranging from1, 2,3,4, up to 6 instars, this is: Complete (or holometabolous) Metamorphosis and may also be influenced by the factors mentioned, previously. This is preceded by the larval pre-pupae stage, the pupal and finally, the adulthood stage.
In the Educational system in South Sudan, Uganda or Kenya, during early 40s, a child was introduced into school when he/she was 7-9 years. However, in the recent past, the nursery system evolved and a child when 3 to 4 years was taken to nursery school to attend basic, medial and top level teaching orientation for 3 years,making the period (6-7yrs.old)before getting admission to Primary one.The period from Primary (1), to Primary 8, represents the larval instars development in insects. While from Senior 1, 2, 3 & 4 covers the period of larval development only (O) level, and from Senior 5 & 6 covers the pre-pupal transition period (A) level, in Uganda and Kenya unlike South Sudan. The University Education which may take 3, 4, 5, or 6 yrs, depending on the requirements of various Colleges,represents the complete pupal transformation period of insects. The emergence of adulthood in insects is therefore, equivalent to the final graduation of successful students from various Universities Colleges with their respective specializations.

NB: “The difference acknowledged in the above table or in the text is that, in insect metamorphosis the matric is in days while in the education system, matric is in number of years”.

Prof. Dr. Sampson A-Koi Binyason is aResearch Professor (IPM) Specialist EntomologyDR.JG-MUST, BOR JONGLEI STATE/RSSEmail: mobile +211924543460

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