Kiir’s Wisdom is Never Seldom [Last Part]
By Dut Makoi Kuok
After a bloody civil strife that lasted 17 years, the Arabs decided to sign the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972 that allowed for the first time, a Southern Sudanese representative to the third power in the country, in addition to a regional government called high executive council headed by a president.
In the period that lasted for only eleven years, the Arabs managed to see through all their state policy agenda.
They were able to cultivate tribalism, schism and political differences among and between the main parties and tribes in the South, thus fragmenting the strong chemistry of togetherness and oneness that compelled them to sign an agreement of self-rule with the Anyanya one rebels.
Convinced that, the proper implementation of that agreement amounts to complete failure of their policy in Southern Sudan, the Arab Sudanese sheathed their sword in the Addis Ababa agreement. They started to dismantle all the provisions of the agreement.
General Jaafar Nimeiri decided to succumb to pressures of all Northern political parties, not to see through smooth implementation of the agreement.
Contrary to the provisions of the agreement, Nimeiri decided to dissolve the regional government and replaced it by a weak and divisive three Governments in Bahr El Ghazal, equatorial and upper Nile each headed by a governor.
He also brought Egyptians to dig canal in Jonglei in complete dismay and resentment by the dissidents and people of Southern Sudan.
When oil was discovered in Bentiu, Nimeiri announced it to the world that oil was discovered in Bentiu, South of Khartoum.
Relatedly, when minerals were discovered in two areas in Raja, he ordered their annexation to the western Sudan and to make it difficult to the people of South Sudan, to resist his policies, Gen. Nimeiri ordered the redeployment of the Anyanya forces out of Southern Sudan. Many people from different walks of life started to organize themselves into military and political cells.
National Action Movement and Anyanya two cells started to operate. When the regime realized that the South is preparing for the war, it quickly managed to redeploy some battalions to Western Sudan.
But the forces and some officers in Juba, Bor, Ayod, Malakal and Rumbek started to organize themselves to defy the redeployment orders. Lt. Col. Kerbino Kuanyibol, who was in Juba, heard of the orders quickly dashed out to his headquarter in Bor and started to organize his forces 104/105, other elements from the organized forces and students, in coordination with other officers in the area (among them Dr. Col. John Garang) to fight the advancing redeployment forces from Juba, led by a Southern Sudanese.
On 16th May 1983, the first bullet of the second liberation struggle was fired in Bor. This was echoed all over Southern Sudan, out of conviction that the Arab Sudanese cannot and will never listen to the grievances of the people of Southern Sudan except through the barrel of gun.
This enraged the proud Arab ruler, who immediately decided to announce the infamous Sharia Islamic laws all over the country and subsequently declaring the country as an Arab Islamic State. All northern political parties in the north congratulated Gen.
Nimeiri on the move, and promised him that they will mobilize all the necessary support to defeat the infidel pagans of Southern Sudan.
After a protracted bloody war that claimed and maimed millions of people, the Arab Sudanese decided to take respite again by signing an agreement that shall offer them another window of opportunity to further their state policy agenda, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005.
The Sudanese Arabs were so wedded to the belief that Allah was always on their side and that whatever they sign with infidels is null and nil unless it furthers their grandiose project of Islamization and Arabization. And when all nasty and filthy tactics failed, the Arab Sudanese accepted the referendum to be conducted in 2011.
To their surprise, the overwhelming result for the support of an independent South Sudan also came from Southern Sudanese whom different regimes invested on over the years.
South Sudan became an independent country after years of mayhem, oppression, suffering and lots of lives lost and life shattered.
My intention throughout the narration of our long history of struggle is not however to expound the events as the historians do, but to walk through corridors of our history to enable me inform my findings and conclusions for the benefit of the leadership, citizenship and readership.
First and foremost, the long struggle which was fought tooth and nail, by all of us, has claimed and maimed millions of our dear loved ones. Second, the struggle has shattered all aspects of our life, torn us apart traumatized and impoverished us.
Third, it has eroded our strong chemistry of togetherness and oneness. Fourth, it has made us more sensitive, aggressive, and ready to detonate and explode towards any minor feelings of proudness, superiority or suppression.
Fifth, our strong cultural values and traditions, and languages are almost at the verge of collapse. Sixth, it has built in us spirit of rivalry, leadership and power struggle. Seventh, it has shown us that the will of the people and their guest for better life and fundamental rights is never quelled by force.
These are some of the findings that can be explored when reflecting on our long history and struggle. Conclusion: It is pretty clear that everyone wants to piggyback on what our ancestors, our fathers and us did to liberate this country from the colonial powers.
But did we learn anything from that long struggle? And if the answer is yes, what is it that we have learnt and how are we handling the great people of this beloved country.
Our leadership, the leadership layer beneath you the opposition leadership and the citizenship in general, kindly let us reflect back, draw lessons, and come up with solutions and remedies to our deep seated problems.
South Sudan needs a team leader – manager like comrade Salva Kiir who is always ready to forgive and forget our knock – on effects of the long struggle. God Bless South Sudan.
The writer was former Khartoum Monitor regular contributor and former government official in Western Lakes State and he can be reached through his facebook page under the name Dut Makoi Kuok